Dhrupad – Archives

Audio and Video Recordings and Articles on Dhrupad and the Dagar Tradition All articles © Ashish Sankrityayan

उस्ताद ज़िआ फरीदुद्दीन डागर की शिक्षण शैली और ध्रुपद के वर्तमान प्रश्न ( The Teaching Methods of Ustad Zia Fariduddin Dagar and Contemporary Questions of Dhrupad)

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Nasir Aminuddin and Zia Fariduddin Dagar sing in a concert with Raja Chatrapati Singh on Pakhawaj

Nasir Aminuddin and Zia Fariduddin Dagar sing in a concert with Raja Chatrapati Singh on Pakhawaj

My first essay in Hindi उस्ताद ज़िआ फरीदुद्दीन डागर की शिक्षण शैली और ध्रुपद के वर्त्तमान प्रश्न ( The Teaching Methods of Ustad Zia Fariduddin Dagar and Contemporary Questions of Dhrupad) Published in Hindi literary magazine Samaas vol 9 February 2014 editor Udayan Vajpeyi.

Samaas Dhrupad Article

Samaas Dhrupad Article

 

Nasir Aminuddin and Zia Fariduddin Dagar sing in a concert with Raja Chatrapati Singh on Pakhawaj

Nasir Aminuddin and Zia Fariduddin Dagar sing in a concert with Raja Chatrapati Singh on Pakhawaj

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July 29, 2014 at 4:18 am

5 day Intensive Residential Dhrupad Workshop 22nd to 26th August 2014 Rasa Intragna CH

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Dhrupad Intensive Workshop in Rasa Centovalli a little Swiss mountain village near Locarno 22nd till 26th August 2014 with the early morning lower octave Kharaj practice, Vedic chantings with the use of mudras, fundamental Nada Yoga practices of Dhrupad singing, fundamentals of Dhrupad Alap and Dhrupad Composition. Participation € 100 per day including stay and meals (prepared collectively). www.dhrupad.info

Written by dhrupad1234

July 15, 2014 at 5:51 pm

Manuscripts of Rahim Fahimuddin Dagar

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Ustad Rahim Fahimuddin Dagar had a considerable collection of hand written manuscripts of his ancestors – mostly of his grandfather Allabande Khan, his uncle Nasiruddin Khan and his father Rahimuddin Khan Dagar. After the untimely death of Nasiruddin Khan Dagar in 1936 the possession of these manuscripts had caused frictions in the family.

During my long apprenticeship as his disciple I would often see him leafing through them. I would try to use every such occasion to let my video camera range over pages that he opened and have in the process managed to record some fragments of the writings. For example rummaging through his papers one day he came across these loose sheets pinned together which he could not identify at first. A close examination revealed that they were prastara exercises for the Veena written by his uncle Nasiruddin Khan in 1912 in Alwar Rajasthan.

Dhrupad Prastara Exercises Nasiruddin Khan Dagar

Dhrupad Prastara Exercises Nasiruddin Khan Dagar Dhrupad Prastara Exercises Nasiruddin Khan Dagar Dhrupad Prastara Exercises Nasiruddin Khan Dagar

 

 

 

The video grabs above give us the title page with the author’s name and the first page. It should be possible to understand the logic or the algorithm if there is one from such fragments.

Here is a little video of him reading aloud the text of a Dhrupad composition from such a manuscript written by his grandfather Allabande Khan in 1908.


The second video shows the first page of the same manuscript and has him chiding me for wanting to know in a minute what supposedly take years to understand. If the names of the famous Dhrupad singers he reads aloud are of the authors of the compositions whose texts are written in the manuscript then it would be a very interesting one indeed.

For a long time the knowledge of the grammar and conceptual framework of Dhrupad was kept as privileged knowledge to be revealed only to a few chosen bearers of the tradition. Fahimuddin Dagar was enormously protective about his manuscripts, his enormous knowledge and insight. A part of his guardedness was of  course due to the concern that the knowledge should be given through the right process to someone who would be able to carry the tradition forward

I would often bring him texts of Dhrupad compositions I found in rare books in the hope that he might remember some and spontaneously sing them. Here is his singing of the first part of a composition in Deosakh when he found a variant of its text in the Urdu version of Nad Vinod Granth (which is why I cannot read it). I try to coax him to sing the second part – he reads the text aloud but is unwilling to sing it or cannot remember the melody immediately.

Here is the same composition text from the Hindi version of Nad Vinod. Some kind of a reconstruction of the 2nd part – the antara based on the structure of the 1st part sung by him in this video would be possible for a singer who knows the Raga well. However it would not be as straightforward as reconstructing the 3rd and 4th parts – the sanchari and abhog from the 1st and 2nd as outlined in a previous post.

Text of Dhrupad Composition in Deosakh Nad Vinod Granth Pannalal Goswami 1896

Text of Dhrupad Composition in Deosakh Nad Vinod Granth Pannalal Goswami 1896

Perhaps the most interesting manuscript in his possession was what appeared to be an entire book on music written by his grandfather Allabande Khan in 1890. I saw a few pages of it – it has diagrams and tables and is probably on concepts of music. He can be seen reading from it in the beginning of my documentary film on Dhrupad.

I don’t know if all the manuscripts in the possession of Rahim Fahimuddin Dagar would ever become publicly accessible to be used by students and researchers of Dhrupad. The same sad story has been repeated often enough – of manuscripts in the zealously guarded possession of families in the end getting lost or destroyed – like the manuscript of Budhprakash of Seni compositions or the one of Radheshyamji of Tikamgarh. I hope this won’t happen with the manuscripts of the Dagar tradition that Fahimuddin Dagar had.
All articles on this blog © Ashish Sankrityayan. No part may be used except with written permission and explicit acknowledgement.

The Martial Feats of Emperor Aurangzeb – Adana Dhrupad Composition

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Many Dhrupad compositions which still survive fragmentarily in the living repertoire of singers or in old recordings can be found in their entirety in old manuscripts, books and journals.

Nasir Aminuddin Dagar

Nasir Aminuddin Dagar

Here is a composition in Sooltal in Raga Adana by Ustad Nasir Aminuddin Dagar from a concert in Delhi in the 1980’s. Pakhawaj player not known. The beginning is missing which is why he seems to start abruptly with the antara and comes back to sing the sthayi again. The composition curiously refers to the martial feats of fanatical Mughal emperor Aurangzeb who had banned music from his kingdom.

The composition obviously dates before 1668-69 when Aurangzeb imposed the ban. While this recording has only the first two parts of the composition, I found all the four parts in a manuscript of about 400 dhrupad compositions written by Sanatan Sil, a dhrupad singer who studied both instrumental and vocal dhrupad from several prominent musicians of the Seni, Vishnupur and Betiah traditions – like Birendrakishor Roychowdhury, Shibkumar Mitra and Bamacharan Sil – a student of the well known Dhrupad singer Danibabu of the Betiah tradition.

Satish Chandra Dutta aka Danibabu Dhrupad Singer Betiah Tradition (1877-1958)

Danibabu Dhrupad Singer Betiah Tradition (1877-1958)

Like many fine dhrupad singers in the last century, he never took it up as a profession despite reaching a high standard of excellence, but worked in a bank while keeping up a regular routine of  practice,  teaching and occasional performances. The notations in Sil’s manuscript are so clear and well written that it could be straightaway published as a book.

Dhrupad Singer and Rudra Veena Player Sanatan Sil

Sanatan Sil

Sil’s manuscript lists it as a Khandarbani composition which agrees well with what my teacher Rahim Fahimuddin Dagar told me about such fast paced compositions in the veer rasa or valourous sentiment. Sources which list Ragas or compositions on the basis of the Banis of Dhrupad are quite rare. Examples of such classification are the Sarod Rasa Chandrika of Nirendrakrishna Mitra 1938 as also the recordings of Bharatji Vyas in the SNA archives.

Notation of Dhrupad in Adana in Praise of Aurangzeb - Sanatan Sil

Dhrupad on Aurangzeb

Nalin Behari Ghosh Dhrupad Singer and Bank Executive

Nalin Behari Ghosh Dhrupad Singer and Grindlays Bank Executive (1890? – 1960?)

Another dhrupad singer of the 1st half of the 20th century associated with the Vishnupur and Betiah traditions who never took it up as a profession was Nalinbehari Ghosh. Like Sanatan Sil he also worked in a bank. His manuscript of notations of dhrupads seems to have been more for his personal reference rather than publication. Here is his notation of a Dhamar composition in Kumari and a chowtal dhrupad in Kamod Nat. Nalin Behari Ghosh was an associate of Aghorbabu and Amarbabu two well known dhrupad singers of the 1st half of the 20th century.  A lot of valuable material of Dhrupad especially compositions has been preserved by singers like Sanatan Sil and Nalinbehari Ghosh who pursued it as a private passion while supporting themselves from other professions.  It was difficult in those times to make a living from Dhrupad. Even a well known singer like Danibabu had a job in the Railways. After independence survival as a professional Dhrupad singer became even more difficult with the disappearance of aristocratic patrons.

Radhika Prasad Goswami

Radhika Prasad Goswami

Till a few decades ago Bengal had many Dhrupad singers who were associated with the traditions of Vishnupur and Bettiah. Many of these singers published compositions in books and journals. The best known of them being the brothers Ramprasanna and Gopeshwar Bandopadhyaya who published the Sangeet Manjari and the Sangeet Chandrika. Another renowned Dhrupad singer of Bengal was Radhika Prasad Goswami whose obituary appears in the January 1925 issue of the journal Sangeet Vigyan Praveshika to which he often contributed.

Dhrupad Raga Hem Khem

Dhrupad Raga Hem Khem

Here is a Dhrupad composition notated by him in the uncommon Raga Hem Khem that appeared posthumously in  the July 1925 issue of the magazine. The  article accompanying his obituary also mentions that shortly before his death he was awarded the second prize in the All India Music Conference at Lucknow, the first prize being given to Allabande Khan.  It is even now possible to find in Bengal, old students of students of  singers like Danibabu, Radhika Prasad Goswami and Ramprasanna and Gopeshwar Bandopadhyaya, many of whom  never took up music as a profession but possess a wealth of knowledge and sometimes also old notes and manuscripts of their teachers.

Dhamar in Kumari from Notes of Nalin Behari Ghosh

Dhamar in Kumari from Notes of Nalin Behari Ghosh

Dhrupad in Kamod Nat - Notes of Nalin Behari Ghosh

Dhrupad in Kamod Nat – Notes of Nalin Behari Ghosh

Dhrupad in Adana in Praise of Aurangzeb Sanatan Sil

Dhrupad in Adana in Praise of Aurangzeb notes of Sanatan Sil

Several compositions whose first two parts exist in recordings by Aminuddin Dagar or his brothers can be found in their entirety with all the four parts in manuscripts or old books and journals.

Dhrupad of  Sujan Khan

Dhrupad of Sujan Khan

Here is an example from the notes of Sanatan Sil of a Dhrupad of Sujan Khan in Jhaptal in Raga Megh whose first two parts are often sung in the Dagar tradition in  Raga Surdasi Malhar in the same Tala and another in Raga Darbari Kanada in Tala Chautal from the  November 1925 issue of the Sangeet Vigyan Praveshika.

Dhrupad Darbari Kanada Shadaja Rishabha

Dhrupad Darbari Kanada Shadaja Rishabha

Recording from the personal archives of Ashish Sankrityayan

All articles on this blog © Ashish Sankrityayan. No part may be used except with written permission and explicit acknowledgement.

CDS AND DVDS OF DHRUPAD ON CDBABY

—  Miya Ki Malhar Abhogi and LalitYaman and Malkauns

Elder Dagar Brothers – Ahmadjan Thirakwan Tabla – Bihag

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A rare recording of the Elder Dagar brothers  Nasir Moinuddin and Aminuddin Dagar singing Bihag with Ahmadjan Thirakwan on Tabla. Recorded from a All India Radio Broadcast of a live concert early 1960s by Maharawal Mahipalsinghji of Dungarpur.

Reconstruction of Dhrupad Compositions with Four Parts

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Ramprasanna BannerjeeThe compulsion of giving short performances in the kind of festivals that are organized nowadays with three or four artists sharing the stage and the audience not staying on till late  and also the emphasis on improvisation is probably why often only one or at the most two parts of Dhrupad compositions are heard nowadays. Gradually the last two parts of many compositions have been forgotten since they are not often sung.  However since the last two parts are essentially variations of the first two, it should be possible to reconstruct them if the entire text of the composition is available.

In books like the Dhrupad Swaralipi of Shri Harinarayan Mukhopadhyay published(1929) and available on the link, or the Geet Vadya Saar Sangraha of Charucharan Mukhopadhyaya (1905) or the Nad Vinod Granth of Pannalal Goswami 1896 can be found the complete texts of many such compositions.

For example though there is no recording of all the four parts of the composition Bansidhara Pinakadhara sung in the Dagar Tradition in Multani, we can find the song text in the Dhrupad Swaralipi and reconstruct the entire composition since the third part is essentially a close variation of the sthayi and always begins with a characteristic hudak ornament spanning a large part of the octave from the lower to the middle. The fourth part is essentially like the second with slight variations. The words of the last two parts of this composition as given in the book (in Raga Shree) are -chandanadhara bhasmadhara maalaadhara sheshadhara gopivara parameshwara gopishwara ishwara. kahe miya taansen dou swaroopa ek tuma garudasana vrishavahana teenaloka kara uddhara. The Raga Vigyan of Vinayakrao Patwardhan gives the following lyrics for the last two parts – nandidhara garudadhara kailasdhara vaikunthadhara kahe baiju baware sunahu gunijana nisadina harihara dhyana uradhara.

A well trained Dhrupad singer should be able to reconstruct compositions in this way. Which again brings us to the important task of collecting all recorded and written material on Dhrupad and going about reconstructing whatever is possible.

Another frequently heard composition whose 3rd and 4th parts can be found in the Geet Vadya Saar Sangraha and the Sangit Manjari of Ramprasanna Bannerjee of Vishnupur (1935)  is – niranjana nirakara parabrahma parameshwara.  ek hi anek hoye vyapyo vishambhara. alakha jyoti avinashi jyoti rupa jagatarana. jagannatha jagatapati jagajivana jagadhara. baahi mein sab jiva jantu suranara muni guni gyani. nabhi kamal te brahma pragatayo shataroopa manvantara. kahe baiju vahi brahma vahi virata roopa vahi. aap avataar bhaye chaubis vapudhara.  The same composition can often be found in different Ragas in different traditions. The first book gives it in Raga Bhairava while the second lists it in Bhairavi.

Here is a  recording of the Elder Dagar Brothers singing alap in Sudhdha Rishabh Chandrakauns followed by this composition in a Radio broadcast from the 1960s.

A later recording of the Younger Dagar Brothers has both the sthayi and antara

Here are two more compositions commonly heard in the Dagar tradition with the first two parts along with the texts of all the four parts from the Nad Vinod Granth which could again be reconstructed by singers who are well trained in the tradition.

First two parts of Chowtal Composition in Bhimpalasi sung by the Elder Dagar Brothers

Text of all four parts from Nad Vinod Granth. There is a variant of the same in the Dhrupad Swarlipi mentioned above.Kunjana me rachyo raas chowtal dhrupad composition in Bhimpalasi Nad Vinod Granth of Pannalal Goswami 1896

The first two parts of a Dhrupad composition in Raga Bhupali in Chowtal sung by the Elder Dagar Brothers

Text of all four parts from Nad Vinod Granth. Dhrupad Composition in Chowtal Tan Talwar from Nad Vinod Granth Pannalal Goswami 1896

The Nad Vinod Granth is a valuable book with the texts of many dhrupad compositions and notations of instrumental gats and interesting prastara exercises in various Ragas. The notations of Ragas given in the book show how they have changed over more than a  century. However the book would have been infinitely more valuable had the author also included notations of the Dhrupad compositions instead of notations of only the gats and the prastara exercises.

The photos in this post show Ramprasanna Bannerjee  playing the Rudra Veena and his younger brother Gopeshwar Bannerjee of the Vishnupur Dhrupad Tradition. The world of Dhrupad will be eternally grateful to them for being farsighted enough to publish their two gemGopeshwar Bannerjee Dhrupad Singer and author Vishnupurs with Dhrupad compositions – The Sangit Manjari and the Sangit Chandrika.
All articles on this blog © Ashish Sankrityayan. No part may be used except with written permission and explicit acknowledgement.

Dhamar In Khamaj – Ashish Sankrityayan, Dalchand Sharma

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Short Alap and Dhamar in Khamaj – Ashish Sankrityayan, Dalchand Sharma.